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Immunoglobulins : These are five types 

  • IgG
  • IgM
  • IgA
  • IgE and 
  • IgD

N.B. : – IgG is the only antibody that crosses the placenta. IgM is the largest antibody.

Immunity : Immunity is the property of living organism by which any infection caused by micro-organism are resisted and overcome.

Antigen : Any substance which binds with antibody is called antigen.It may be immunogenic or non-immunogenic.

Antibody : An antibody is a type of globulin (immunoglobulin) produced in response to an antigen with which it reacts specifically.

Hormone : 

Cell or group of cell কর্তৃক internal body fluid এ নিঃসৃত এক প্রকার chemical substance যারা দেহের অন্যান্য cell এর উপর physiological control বা প্রভাব বিস্তার করে।

Hormone সাধারনত বিভিন্ন Endocrine Gland থেকে নিঃসৃত হয় : 

Pituitary gland :  Have two lobes-

  1. Anterior pituitary gland.
  2. Posterior pituitary gland. 

Hormones of anterior pituitary gland :  

  1. Growth Hormone – GH
  2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone – TSH 
  3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone – ACTH
  4. Follicle Stimulating Hormone – FSH
  5. Luteinizing Hormone – LH
  6. Prolactin – PRL 

Hormones of posterior pituitary gland :  

  1. Antidiuretic Hormone. 
  2. Oxytocin.

Function of TSH : Stimulate thyroid gland to synthesis and secrete  thyroxine (T3)  and triiodothyronine (T4).

Function of PRL : In female it promote breast development and milk secretion.

Function of Oxytocin :

  1. Milk ejection. 
  2. Contraction of Uterus.

Hormones of Thyroid gland :  

  1. Thyroxine – T3,
  2. Triiodothyronine – T4,
  3. Calcitonin

Hormones of Parathyroid gland :

  1. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Hepatic Marker Test :

The test by which the presence of hepatitis virus in the body can be detected is called hepatic market test. 

  1. Hepatitis A 
  2. Hepatitis B
    • HBsAg
    • Anti HBs
    • HBeAg
    • Anti HBe
    • Anti Hbc
  1. Hepatitis C (Anti HCV)
  2. Hepatitis D
  3. Hepatitis E

Tumour marker test :

The test  by which the presence of any benign and malignant tumour can be identified is called tumour marker test.

  1. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) : Monitor the progress of cancer treatment
  2. Ca-125: ovarian cancer (female)
  3. Ca-19-9: Colon cancer, Pancreatic cancer 
  4. Ca-15-3: Breast cancer( female )
  5. PSA (prostate specific antigen) : Prostatic cancer
  6. AFP (Alpha fetoprotein) : Liver cancer.

Fertility Marker Test : 

The test by which presence of any fertility indicator (male/female) in the body can be detected is called fertility marker test. 

Such as:

  1. HCG: Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone -(female) 
  2. FSH: Follicle Stimulating hormone -(male and female) 
  3. LH: Luteinizing hormone -(male and female)
  4. PRL: Prolactin hormone -(male and female)
  5. Testosterone hormone -(male and female)


Urine Pregnancy Test এ মূলত HCG Hormone detect করা হয়।

PCR : Polymerase Chain Reaction : 

Application / Indication of PCR :

  1. Prenatal diagnosis, eg. cystic fibrosis.
  2. Diagnosis of microorganisms -viral, fungal, parasitic or bacterial infection. 
  3. Diagnosis of hereditary disease like Sickle cell anaemia.
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