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Histopathology & Cytopathology

Histopathology & Cytopathology

Histology : 

It is the study of microscopic structure of tissue.

Histopathology : 

It is the microscopic study of diseased tissue. 

Cytology : 

It is the science that deals with the formation, structure and functions of cells.

Cytopathology : 

It is the study of cellular changes in disease.

Biopsy : 

Histopathological পরীক্ষার জন্য living body হইতে  tissue অপসারণ  বা  removal কে  Biopsy বলে।

Classification of biopsy :

  1. Open biopsy : ২ প্রকার :
    1. Incisional biopsy,
    2. Excisional biopsy
  2. Closed biopsy : ৫ প্রকার :
    1. Core-needle (percutaneous closed)biopsy : Breast mas,  liver mass) 
    2. Endoscopic biopsy (disease of stomach, oesophagus) 
    3. Trephine biopsy (Bone marrow examination) 
    4. Punch biopsy (it is done in rectal lesions)
    5. Ultrasono  guided or CT guided biopsy: (as in Lung disease) 

Indication of biopsy :

  1. Diagnosis of tuberculosis of lymph node.
  2. Diagnosis of benign tumour and malignant tumour.
  3. Diagnosis of lymphoma. 

FNAC : Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology :  

এটা একটা পদ্ধতি যেখানে small bore needle এর সাহায্যে cell ও তার সহযোগী fluid কে aspirate  করা হয় এবং তারপর stain কৃত smear-এ cytological examination করা হয়।

Indications of FNAC : 

নিম্নে উল্লেখিত palpable ও non-palpable mass lesion এর diagnosis-এ FNAC করা হয়। 

  1. Palpable mass lesion in : Lymph node, Breast, Thyroid, Salivary gland and Soft tissue mass.
  2. Non-palpable mass lesion in : Abdominal cavity, Thoracic cavity, Retro-peritoneum space.

Water bath :

It is an instrument in which the desired temperature can be maintained by heating water around the container placed in it.The temperature of the water bath is controlled by a thermostatic arrangement.

Uses :

  • Determination of serum enzyme at 37°c
  • Serological determination at 56°c
  • Enzymatic determination of glucose, urea, cholesterol, triglyceride at 37°c
  • Saponification at 60°c-70°c

Paraffin bath :

This is an instrument used to melt paraffin wax from tissue slide embedding.The paraffin oven maintain a temperature between 50°c and 60°c.The oven may be provided with a water jacket which maintain a more even temperature. 

Uses :

  • Melting of paraffin 
  • Storing of molten paraffin 
  • Infiltration of paraffin in sections
  • Drying of slide
  • warming of solution during preparation of reagents.
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