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Group: Laboratory Medicine

Subject: Laboratory Technique (Paper-I)

Q-1-a) What are the difference between chemical and reagent? (Jan-2020)


Difference between chemical and reagent:


A substance with a specific chemical composition and properties.A substance or mixture used in a chemical reaction or analysis.

Role in a chemical reaction
Can be a reactant, product, solvent, or catalystCan be a reactant, product, or solvent. Catalysts are not considered reagents

To be used in chemical reactions, industrial processes, or other applications.To be used in chemical reactions or analyses.

Water, sodium chloride, sulfuric acid, benzeneBenedict’s reagent, Tollens’ reagent, Fehling’s reagent, silver nitrate
Q-1-b) Mention the guideline for collection of specimen. (Jan-2020)

Guideline for collection of specimen:

There are four steps involved in collection of good quality specimens for testing:

1. Preparation of the patient

2. Collection of the specimen

3. Processing the specimen, and

4. Storing and/or transporting the specimen.

General instructions for specimen collection:

  • Selection of appropriate sites for specimen collection (e.g., the concentration of glucose is different in arterial and venous blood).
  • To ensure that the most useful specimen is obtained, it should always be collected at the appropriate time. Random collection should be limited to emergency situations. 
  • Use the container/tube indicated in the test requirements for appropriate specimen preservation (e.g, blood for cell counting should be collected in tubes containing EDTA dipotassium salt to avoid plasma coagulation and platelet aggregation). 
  • Collect a quantity of specimen sufficient to perform the test, as indicated in the rest requirements.
  • Specimens should be collected under strict aseptic conditions where necessary.
  • Specimens should be collected in dry, sterile, leak proof containers free from all traces of disinfectant.
  • Carefully tighten specimen container lids to avoid leakage and/or potential contamination of specimens.
  • High risk specimens, e.g. blood, sputum,  fluid from ulcers – must be handled with extra care.
  • Maintain the specimen at the temperature indicated in the test requirements. 
  • All specimens should be labeled in the presence of the patient.

Processing the specimen:

Process and store the specimens  as required. Appropriate storage and handling are necessary to maintain integrity of the specimen and, consequently, the test results.

Q-1-c) Mention the steps of AFB staining. (Jan-2020)


Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB) e.g-mycobacterium tuberculosis is stained by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining.


  • Glass slide
  • Cotton
  • Platinum loop/wire loop
  • Test tube with holder
  • Staining rack 
  • Spirit lamp 
  • Match
  • Microscope


  • Carbol fuchsin Solution
  • 20%  H2So4
  • Methylene blue / Malachite green
  • Distilled water 
  • cedar wood oil.

Specimen: Sputum


1. clean the slide and make it greeze-free.

2. Make a thin, uniform film with a sterilized loop.

3. Dry the film in air.

 4. Fix the film by slowly passing the slide 3-4 times through a flame.

5. Heat carbol fuchsin in a test tube till fumes appear.

6. Cover the slide with fuming carbol fuchsin and Keep for 5 minutes.

7. wash with water.

8. Decolourize with 20% sulphuric acid or acid alcohol until only a faint pink colour remains.

9. wash with water. 

10. Counterstain with methylene blue for 20-30 seconds.

11. wash with water and dry in the air.

Examine: Examine under oil-immersion of the micro

Q-1-d) Name the sites of recording pulse and temperature with normal range.( Jan-2020)


Sites of Recording Temperature:

  • In the mouth, under the surface of the tongue [Oral temperature] 
  • Under the arm (armpit) [Axillary temperature]
  • In the rectum [Rectal temperature] 
  • Forehead [Temporal temperature]
  • Inguinal region or groin (in children) )
  • Ear (external auditory canal)

 Normal body temperature:

Range:    97°F (36.1°C) – 99°F (37.2°C) 

Average: 98.4° F (37°C)

[Note: Oral temperature is usually 0.5°C (0.9°F) higher than the axillary temperature. Rectal temperature is usually 0.5°C (0.9° F) higher than the oral temperature.]

Sites of Recording Pulses :

Pulses and their Sites:

PulsesSitesUnderlying arteries
RadialProximal to the wrist joint of the radial sideRadial artery
BrachialGroove between biceps and triceps muscles at antecubital fossaBrachial artery
CarotidAlong medial edge of sternocleidomastoid muscle (anterior triangle of the neck)
Common carotid artery
Femoral Below inguinal ligament, midway between symphysis pubis and anterior superior iliac spine (femoral regionFemoral artery
PoplitealBehind the knee in popliteal fossaPopliteal artery
Posterior tibialPosteromedial to the ankle, below the medial malleolusPosterior tibial artery
Dorsalis pedisDorsum of the foot, between the first (big toe) and second metatarsalsDorsalis pedis artery

Normal range of pulse:

  • Children (ages 6-15): 70-100 beats per minute 
  • Adults (age 18 and over): 60-100 beats per minute
Q-1-e) Write down the waste disposal system of a medical laboratory. (Jan-2020)


Disposal system of a medical laboratory waste:

Methods used to dispose of laboratory waste include:

  1. Incineration
  2.  Burial in a deep covered waste pit or landfill. 

Laboratory waste must never be disposed of with household waste. 

Laboratory waste must always be transported in closed, strong, leak-proof containers.


Incineration is destruction by burning, which is a practical and effective method of disposing of laboratory waste including contaminated disposables and specimens in non-reusable containers, e.g. faeces. The materials to be incinerated must be carried to the incineration site in closed leak-proof puncture resistant containers.

Burial in a deep pit or landfill: 

  • Burying laboratory waste prevents it becoming a hazard providing the pit is located in a safe fenced off area, is sufficiently deep (4 – 5 metres) and wide ( 1 – 2 metres), has a strengthened rim, and is kept covered.
  • The disposal pit should not be used for items that do not decompose, e.g. plastic laboratory ware.These are best incinerated.
  • Ideally all infectious laboratory waste should be decontaminated or incinerated before it is discarded in a pit or landfill.
  • Once a week, the waste should be covered by a layer of quicklime, or if unavailable by soil or leaves.
Q-2-a)  Define cross infection?.How will you prevent laboratory cross infection? (Jan-2020)

Cross infection:

Cross infection (or laboratory acquired infection) is the transfer of harmful microorganisms, usually bacteria and viruses, from the patients, specimens, equipment, or place to the laboratory staff while working in the laboratory.


Cross infection:

Cross infection, also known as cross contamination, is the transfer of harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, from one person to another. This can happen through direct contact, indirect contact, or through the air.

Prevention of cross infection:

1. Practice of personal hygiene and reducing contact with infected materials.

  • Washing of hands:
  • Using soap and warm water. Rub the hands really well for at least 20 seconds. Rupp the palms fingernail, in between the fingers, and the backs of the hands.
  • If hands do not look dirty, alcohol-based sanitizers are used to clean hands. Rub the sanitizer all over the hands, especially under the nails and between the fingers, until the hands are dry.
  • Hands are cleaned before and after doing a procedure, before touching or eating food etc.
  • Wearing gloves when the laboratory workers perform tasks such as taking blood, touching wounds or body fluids. 
  • Covering of mouth and nose using face mask to prevent entry of organisms.

2. Safe working environment: 

  • Careful handling of specimens, cultures and other infected materials.
  • Pouring infectious material safely.
  • Avoiding mouth pipetting and dispensing. 
  • Opening cultures and ampoules safely.
  • Shaking cultures and infected materials safely in tightly capped bottles. 
  • Avoiding infection from centrifuge accidents.
  • Avoiding infection from spillages and breakages.
  • Safe use of syringes and needles.
  • Safe disposal of specimens and contaminated materials.
  • Decontamination of all surfaces and reusable devices after use with appropriate disinfectants.

3. Immunization against highly infectious pathogens and regular medical examination of the laboratory personnel.

Q-2-b) Define centrifuge machine. What are the uses of centrifuge machine. (Jan-2020)


 Centrifuge machine:

The machine by which sediment or deposit particles such as cells may be suspended in a fluid by the action of centrifugal force is called a centrifuge machine. 


A centrifuge machine is a mechanical or electromechanical device that uses centrifugal force to separate mixtures according to the density of their components.

Use of centrifuge machine:

The centrifuge machine is mainly used in a laboratory for –

  • Separation of serum or plasma from red blood cells.
  • Separation of sediment in urine.
  • Separation of protein free filtrate and 
  • Washing of red blood cells by normal saline.
Q-2-c) Name five anticoagulants used in the laboratory and their uses. (Jan-2020)

Common anticoagulants with their uses:

                  Anticoagulants                            Uses
1. Double oxalates (Ammonium oxalate and Potassium oxalate)Tests done by using double oxalates are -HaemoglobinWBC count, RBC countEstimation of ESR by Wintrobe’s methodPCV determinationBiochemical tests, except blood urea estimation.
2. EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid)Tests done by using EDTA are -Haemoglobin WBC count (total and differential), RBC countPCV determinationESR by Wintrobe’s methodPlatelet countDifferential count of WBC
3. Tri-sodium citrateESR by Westergren’s methodCoagulation studies
4. HeparinDetermination of blood gasses Osmotic fragility test
5. Oxalated fluorideEstimation of plasma glucose
6. Acid citrate dextrose (ACD)Used as a preservative in blood bag (in blood banking)
Q-2-d) What is pH meter? What are its type? State the maintenance of pH meter. (Jan-2020)

 pH meter: 

pH meter is an instrument by which pH can be measured most reliably and conveniently.


A pH meter is a scientific instrument that measures the hydrogen-ion activity in water-based solutions, indicating its acidity or alkalinity expressed as pH. 

Types of pH meter:

  1. Manual pH meter. 
  2. Digital pH meter.
  3. Simple and inexpensive pen-like devices.
  4. Complex and expensive laboratory instruments with computer interfaces and several inputs for indicator and temperature measurements.
  5. Battery-powered or rely on electricity.

Maintenance of pH meter: 

  1. The glass electrode should be carefully washed after each pH determination.
  2. Cleanliness of the probes is essential for accuracy and precision.
  3. When not in use the tip of the probes must be kept moist using an aqueous solution

available from probe manufacturers.

  1. Storage of electrodes: A glass electrode alone without combined reference electrode is typically stored immersed in an acidic solution of around pH 3.0. 

Combined electrodes are better stored immersed in the bridge electrolyte to avoid the diffusion of the electrolyte (KCI) is used, having a pH of one. Alternatively, a dilute solution of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) can be used.

Q-2-e) Classify Microscope. Give the utility of low, high and oil immersion objectives of a compound microscope. (Jan-2020)


The microscope is a magnifying instrument by which small objects that can not be seen by the naked eye become visible under it. 

Classification of microscope:

1.Simple microscope

2.Compound/light microscope

There are many types of light microscope,such as-

  1. Bright field microscope
  2. Dark field microscope
  3. Phase contrast microscope
  4. Polarizing microscope
  5. Fluorescence microscope

3.Electron microscope

a)Transmission electron microscope

b)Scanning electron microscope

Utility of low power objective:

Low power objectives cover a wide field of view and they are useful for examining a large area of specimens or surveying many smaller specimens. Then, it is possible to locate those areas which need closer study with a high power objective.

This objective is useful for aligning the microscope. The power for the low objective is 10X.

Utility of high power objective: 

  • To focus a smaller part of the specimen.
  • Before use of an oil immersion objective lens, to ensure the specimen is in focus.

 Utility of oil immersion objective: 

  • It allows finer details of the specimen to be seen. So, it is used for examining the detail of the specimen, for example – individual cells, such as red blood cells.
Q-3-a) Define medical laboratory? Describe the role of laboratory and its integration into the health service. (Jan-2020)


 Medical Laboratory:

A medical laboratory is a diagnostic centre where various tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient as pertaining to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

  • Role of Medical laboratory:
  1. The medical laboratory forms an integral part of a nation’s health service.
  2. It gives the health service a scientific foundation.
  3. It provides accurate test information to the clinicians for treating patients and monitoring the response of treatment. Thus, the medical laboratory plays a crucial role in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of diseases in patients.
  4. It provides data to those who are responsible for deciding health priorities and allocating resources.
  5. It gives updated information for maintaining the development and spread of infectious and dangerous pathogens.
  6. It helps in investigating preventable premature loss of life.
  7. It provides information to those who are responsible for deciding effective control measures against major prevalent diseases.
  8. Medical laboratory service develops and enforces a professional code of conduct.
  9. It trains its workers appropriately and provides opportunities for continuing education. 
  10. It provides and maintains reliable diagnostic and epidemiological services.
  11. It ensures community involvement and access to the service.
  • Integration of medical laboratory into the health service:

To enhance the above roles of the medical laboratory, integration of the medical laboratory services into the National Health Service must work as a team and learn to apply their integrated (combined) skills and available resources to achieve the highest level of health for their people.

Q-3-b) Write down the personal hygiene for medical technologist. (Jan-2020)


Practice of personal hygiene for medical technologist:

  1.  Washing of hands and arms with soap and water before and after handling specimens / infected materials; and at the end of the day’s work.
  2. Covering any cuts, insect bites, open sores, or wounds on the hands or other exposed parts of the body with a water-proof adhesive dressing. Irritating insect bites should be treated.
  3. Wearing closed shoes and not walking barefoot.
  4. Eating, drinking, smoking, chewing gum or applying cosmetics and handling contact lenses in work areas should be strictly prohibited. 
  5. Food or drink should never be stored in a laboratory refrigerator. 
  6. Not licking gummed labels or placing pens, pencils, or other articles near the mouth, eyes or in hair.
  7. Should avoid jewellery in the working area, particularly pendant and bracelets. 
  8. Should not recap, bend or remove needles manually from blood drawing adapters.
  9. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE): 
  • Wearing hand gloves while handling specimens and during blood collections.
  • Disposable gloves should not be washed or decontaminated for future use. 
  • Use of protective clothing (overall/apron).
  • Use of splatter shields which provide protection from splatter of specimens and chemicals.
  • Use of safety goggles to protect eyes, face shields and dust masks.
  • Vaccination/immunization of laboratory staff and periodical medical examinations.
  • Safe pipetting and dispensing – prohibition of mouth pipetting.
  • Safe use of syringe and needle – to prevent pricking oneself or one’s colleague.
  • Avoiding infection from centrifuge accidents, spillages and breakages.
Q-3-c) What do you mean by medical record? Mention its importance? (Jan-2020)

 Medical record: The reports and documents of different laboratory tests and medical activities that are maintained in a register are called medical records.


A medical record is a document that contains a patient’s medical history, including their medical problems, medications, allergies, immunizations, surgeries, and test results. It also includes information about the patient’s care, such as their diagnoses, treatments, and progress.

Importance of medical recording keeping:

  • In the laboratory, medical records help to find out a patient’s test results quickly.
  • Test records are required to prepare work reports and to estimate the workload of the laboratory.
  • Help to identify a patient in case of need.
  • Help to prepare a list of patients according to age sex.
  • Help to prepare a list of the diseases occurring in an area.
  • Help to prepare a future plan in the medical field for better service.
Q-3-d) What are the code of Conduct for  laboratory personnel?. (Jan-2020)


A Code of Professional Conduct for Medical Laboratory Personnel should include those practices and attitudes which characterize a professional and responsible laboratory officer.

It is necessary to ensure a person works in recognized standards which patients and clinicians expect.

Professional code of conduct for medical laboratory personnel: 

  • Be dedicated to the use of clinical laboratory science to benefit mankind.
  • Place the well-being and service of patients above your own interests. 
  • Be accountable for the quality and integrity of clinical laboratory services. 
  • Exercise professional judgment, skill, and care while meeting established standards.
  • Do not misuse your professional skills or knowledge for personal gain, and never take anything from your place of work that does not belong to you. 
  • Be at all times courteous, patience and considerate to patients and their relatives. Safeguard the dignity and privacy of patients.
  • Do not disclose to a patient or any unauthorized person the results of your investigation and treat with strict confidentiality any personal information that you may learn about a patient. 
  • Respect and work in harmony with the other members of your hospital staff or health centre team. 
  • Promote health care and the prevention and control of disease.
  • Follow safe working practices and ensure patients and others are not put at risk. Know what to do if an accident or fire occurs and how to apply emergency First Aid. 
  • Do not consume alcohol or take unprescribed drugs that could interfere with your work performance during laboratory working hours or when on emergency stand-by.
  • Use equipment and laboratory-ware correctly and do not waste reagents or other laboratory supplies. 
  • Strive to improve professional skills and knowledge and adopt scientific advances that benefit the patient and improve the delivery of test results. 
  • Fulfill reliably and completely the terms and conditions of your employment.
Q-3-e)  What are the hazards of mouth pipetting? How will you prevent these hazards? (Jan-2020)


Hazards of mouth pipetting:

1. Infections: by- 

  • Accidental aspiration of infectious fluid and culture media in the pipette.
  • Inspiration of vapors or of aerosols from the fluid through unplugged pipettes.
  • Oral contamination following the placing of a contaminated finger on the proximal end of the pipette.

2. Poisoning: by accidental sucking up poisonous reagent.

3. Chemical burn/injury: by accidental sucking up chemicals.

4. Cuts: by accidental breaking of the mouth pipette.

Prevention of hazards caused by mouth pipetting:

1. No mouth pipetting, preferably be banned.

2. Use of a pipette device for pipetting.

Q-4-a) Define sterilization. How can you sterilize glass wires, surgical dressing and instrument? (Jan-2020)


Sterilization : 

Sterilization is the process by which all viable microorganisms including spores are killed or eliminated.

Sterilization methodMaterials to be sterilized
Hot-air-ovenGlass wares
5% Cresol(Lysol)Surgical instruments (Sharp articles)
AutoclaveSurgical dressing
Q-4-b) Write down the care and use of a microscope. (Jan-2020)


Care of microscope :

1. Examine all the parts of a microscope before use.

2. Keep the microscope in a perfectly clean condition.

3. Carry by holding the arm.

4. Clean the lenses with a Soft Cotton Cloth moistened with xylol. Remove xylol with a dry cloth without delay.

5. Clean the oil-immersion objective on each occasion after use, by wiping the oil from the front of the Lens with a cloth.

Use of microscope :

1) Examination of stained hematological slide (Blood, Bone marrow).

2) Examination of body fluids (urine, stool, CSF, semen).

3) Examination of sputum after Z-N stain.

4) Examination of histopathological & cytopathological slides after H & E, paps stain. 

5) Examination of slides after special staining & immunohistochemistry.

6) Examination of fungus, parasites.

Q-4-c) Mention the sites of peripheral blood collection, Write the procedure of collection of blood from finger tips. (Jan-2020)


Sites of peripheral blood collection :

  • Fingertips or ball of finger
  • Lobule of the ear,
  • In infants – the heel, thumb pad, or greater toe.

Collection of capillary blood from fingers tips:

  1. Apparatus required:
  • Blood lancet/Pricking needle / Pricking gun
  • Sterile gauze / cotton
  • Glass slides, pipettes, etc, according to requirements.
  • 70% alcohol / betadine / methylated spirit.

2. Procedure:

All aseptic precautions must be taken. The person giving the prick should wash his/her hands with soap and water, and should wear gloves, if possible.

  • Clean and vigorously rub the ball of the finger with alcohol or spirit swab, followed by a final cleaning with dry gauze. 
  • Hold the finger to be pricked in your left hand, apply a gentle pressure on the sides of the ball of the finger with your thumb to raise a thick, broad ridge of skin.
  •  Hold the lancet in your right hand between the thumb and fingers. Keep the left hand steady.
  • Make a skin prick with a sharp and quick vertical stab to a depth of 3-4 mm and release the pressure.The blood should start to flow slowly, spontaneously and freely (without any squeezing) – if a good prick has been given.
  • Wipe away the first 2 drops of blood with dry, sterile gauze.
  • Allow a fresh drop of blood of sufficiently large size (about 3-4 mm in diameter) to be formed, and make a blood smear, or fill a pipette as the case may be.
  • Clean the area of prick a fresh swab and ask the patient to keep the swab pressed on the wound his/her thumb till the bleeding stops.
Q-4-d) What do you mean by SI unit?. Give the application of SI unit in clinical chemistry. (Jan-2020)


SI unit:

SI unit is the abbreviation of “Systeme International d’unites”. This means an international system of units for measurement. It is based on the metre-kilogram-second system and replaces the old systems. It overcomes the language barriers and permits exchange of health information within a country and between nations. 

Application/Uses of SI units:

SI units are used:

  • in test methods
  • preparation of reagents, and
  • reporting of test results.

The followings are the main application of SI units in clinical chemistry:

1. In reporting measurements of weight (mass) g/l is used now in exchange of mg or g/100 ml. Examples: Albumin, total protein, haemoglobin (although dl is still used), mean cell haemoglobin concentration.

2. In reporting measurements of the amounts of substances nmol/l, µmol/l and mmol/l are used now in exchange of old units mg/100ml or µg/100 ml. 


Tests reported in nmol/l, µmol/l, mmol/l include –

  • nmol/l – thyroxine
  • µmol/l – bilirubin, creatinine, iron
  • mmol/l – calcium, glucose, urea, cholesterol 

3. In reporting electrolytes mmol/l is used now in exchange of old unit mEq/l 

Example: mmol/l – Na+, K+, Cl- etc. 

4. In reporting catalytic enzyme activity an International Unit (U) is used now in exchange of using different units like Somogyi,, King- Armstrong, Bessey-Lowry, Reitman- Frankel, and karmen. 

Example: U/I – Alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase.

Q-4-e) What are the principles, types and indications of catheterization? (Jan-2020)

Ans: Please see Jan-2021 (Q-4-d).

Q-5-a) Write short notes on : Haemocytometer. (Jan-2020)


Haemocytometer is a box of instruments for counting the number of cells (RBC, WBC, platelets and eosinophils) in a sample of blood.

Composition of Haemocytometer:

Haemocytometer consists of –

1. Diluting pipettes (RBC and WBC pipettes) : 

Two different glass capillary pipettes, each having a bulb, are used to dilute the blood with solution for counting RBC and WBC.

2. Counting chamber (Neubauer improved counting chamber):

It is a thick glass slide which is appropriately ruled with a counting grid. It is charged with diluted blood for counting the cells by microscope.

3. Special cover slips : 

Special cover slips have an optically plain and uniform surface, which are used to cover the counting chamber.

4. RBC and WBC diluting fluids.

Uses of haemocytometer:

The haemocytometer is used for counting –

  • Total count of WBC
  • Total count of RBC 
  • Total count of platelets
  • Total count of circulating eosinophil
Q-5-b) Write short notes on: Hemorrhage.( Jan-2020)

Definition of haemorrhage:

Bleeding or the escape of blood from the blood vessels is called haemorrhage.


Hemorrhage is the rapid loss of blood from a damaged blood vessel. It can be internal or external, and can range from minor to life-threatening.

Types of haemorrhage:

According to source-

1. Arterial

2. Venous

3. Capillary

According to site –

1. External (visible outside the body) 

2. Internal (inside the body and is invisible)

According to time –

1. Primary 

2. Reactionary (within 24 hours)

3. Secondary (after 7-14 days)

Symptoms of hemorrhage:

The symptoms of hemorrhage depend on the type and severity of the bleeding. 

Symptoms of external hemorrhage include:

  • Visible blood loss
  • Pain and swelling at the site of the bleeding
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Pale skin

Symptoms of internal hemorrhage include:

  • Abdominal pain and swelling
  • Pain in the chest or back
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Pale skin
  • Decreased blood pressure
  • Confusion
  • Loss of consciousness

Treatment for hemorrhage:

The treatment for hemorrhage depends on the type and severity of the bleeding. External bleeding can often be stopped by applying direct pressure to the wound and raising the injured limb above the heart. If the bleeding is severe or cannot be controlled, a tourniquet may be applied.

Internal hemorrhage requires immediate medical attention. Treatment may include surgery to repair the damaged blood vessel or blood transfusions to replace lost blood.

Q-5-c) Write short notes on: Oxygen therapy.( Jan-2020)

Oxygen therapy:

Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen at concentration greater than that in room air to treat or prevent low oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia).


Oxygen therapy:

Oxygen therapy is a medical treatment that provides supplemental oxygen to people who cannot get enough oxygen on their own.

Indication of oxygen therapy:

1. Severe respiratory distress (e.g., acute asthma or pneumonia).

2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

3. Pulmonary hypertension 

4. Cor pulmonale

5. Acute myocardial infarction (heart attack)

6. Severe trauma

7. Shock and circulatory failure 

8. Severe anaemia

9. Smoke inhalation

10. Carbon monoxide poisoning

11. Short term therapy, such as post anesthesia recovery.

Methods of oxygen administration:

  1. Nasal cannula – A thin tube with two small nozzles that protrude into the patient’s nostrils.
  2. Simple face mask.
  3. Partial rebreathing mask (face mask with a reservoir bag)
  4. Transtracheal catheter (endotracheal tube)
  5. Oxygen tent

General instructions:

  1. Written order for O₂ therapy with specific dose must be given by a physician.
  2. Adjust the flow of O₂ (2-4 l/min for adults). 
  3. The cannula should be changed, at least, 8 hourly to avoid block of cannula .
  4. The cannula may be taped to the forehead for comfort of the patient to keep it in place.
  5. The nose of the patient should be lubricated with jelly if there is any sign of irritation.
  6. Observe the patient receiving oxygen therapy continuously to detect any sign of oxygen toxicity.
Q-5-d) Write short notes on: BP recording.(Jan-2020)

Oxygen therapy:

Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen at concentration greater than that in room air to treat or prevent low oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia).


Oxygen therapy:

Oxygen therapy is a medical treatment that provides supplemental oxygen to people who cannot get enough oxygen on their own.

Indication of oxygen therapy:

1. Severe respiratory distress (e.g., acute asthma or pneumonia).

2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

3. Pulmonary hypertension 

4. Cor pulmonale

5. Acute myocardial infarction (heart attack)

6. Severe trauma

7. Shock and circulatory failure 

8. Severe anaemia

9. Smoke inhalation

10. Carbon monoxide poisoning

11. Short term therapy, such as post anesthesia recovery.

Methods of oxygen administration:

  1. Nasal cannula – A thin tube with two small nozzles that protrude into the patient’s nostrils.
  2. Simple face mask.
  3. Partial rebreathing mask (face mask with a reservoir bag)
  4. Transtracheal catheter (endotracheal tube)
  5. Oxygen tent

General instructions:

  1. Written order for O₂ therapy with specific dose must be given by a physician.
  2. Adjust the flow of O₂ (2-4 l/min for adults). 
  3. The cannula should be changed, at least, 8 hourly to avoid block of cannula .
  4. The cannula may be taped to the forehead for comfort of the patient to keep it in place.
  5. The nose of the patient should be lubricated with jelly if there is any sign of irritation.
  6. Observe the patient receiving oxygen therapy continuously to detect any sign of oxygen toxicity.
Q-5-e) Write short notes on: Incineration. (Jan -2020)


Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of waste materials. It is a very effective method of reducing the volume and weight of waste, but it is also a source of greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants.

Advantages of incineration:

  • Reduces the volume and weight of waste by up to 90%.
  • Destroys many harmful organic compounds, such as PCBs and pesticides.
  • Can be used to generate electricity.
  • Can be used to treat hazardous waste.

Disadvantages of incineration:

  • Produces air pollutants, such as dioxins and furans.
  • Can release heavy metals into the atmosphere.
  • Requires energy to operate.

Applications of incineration:

  • Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal
  • Hazardous waste disposal
  • Medical waste disposal
  • Sewage sludge disposal
  • Animal waste disposal


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